Understanding Layer 2 Blockchains: Scaling Solutions for the Future

BigONE Exchange
3 min readMar 13, 2023

Blockchain technology has come a long way since the creation of Bitcoin in 2009. With the rise of decentralized applications (dApps) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs), the need for a more scalable and efficient blockchain infrastructure has become increasingly apparent. While layer 1 blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum have made significant strides in scaling, they are still limited by their capacity to handle a large number of transactions. This is where layer 2 blockchains come in. Layer 2 blockchains are a scaling solution designed to increase the throughput and efficiency of layer 1 blockchains. By building on top of an existing blockchain, layer 2 solutions can process a larger volume of transactions at a lower cost and faster speed. In this article we would look at how Layer 2 blockchains work, citing relevant examples and its benefits.

How Layer 2 Blockchains Work

Layer 2 blockchains work by processing transactions off-chain and then settling the final result on-chain. This means that instead of processing every transaction on the main blockchain, layer 2 solutions use sidechains, state channels, or plasma chains to handle a significant portion of the workload.

Sidechains are independent blockchains that are interoperable with the main chain. Transactions can be processed on the sidechain, and the final result is settled on the main chain. State channels, on the other hand, allow for direct transactions between two parties. These transactions are not broadcast to the main chain but are settled when the channel is closed. Plasma chains operate similarly to sidechains, but they have a hierarchical structure that enables more complex applications to be built on top.

Benefits of Layer 2 Blockchains

The benefits of layer 2 blockchains are numerous. Firstly, they allow for increased scalability and throughput. By processing transactions off-chain, layer 2 solutions can handle a much higher volume of transactions at a lower cost and faster speed than layer 1 blockchains.

Secondly, layer 2 solutions can improve the user experience. By reducing transaction times and fees, layer 2 solutions can make dApps and NFTs more accessible to a wider audience.

Thirdly, layer 2 blockchains can reduce the load on layer 1 blockchains. With the increasing popularity of blockchain applications, layer 1 blockchains are under significant strain. Layer 2 solutions can offload a significant portion of the workload, allowing layer 1 blockchains to operate more efficiently.

Popular Layer 2 Blockchain Solutions

There are several layer 2 blockchain solutions currently available. One of the most popular is the Lightning Network, a layer 2 solution for Bitcoin that uses state channels to process transactions off-chain. The Lightning Network has been a significant success, with over 25,000 active nodes and a total network capacity of over 3,000 BTC.

Ethereum also has several layer 2 solutions in development. These include Optimistic Rollups, which use sidechains to process transactions, and ZK-Rollups, which use zero-knowledge proofs to improve privacy and scalability.

Other popular layer 2 solutions include Polygon, which uses a sidechain to process transactions and has become popular for dApps and NFTs, and Binance Smart Chain, which uses a parallel chain architecture to process transactions more efficiently.


Layer 2 blockchains are a promising solution to traditional blockchain networks’ scalability issues. They provide a more efficient and cost-effective way of processing transactions off-chain while maintaining the main blockchain’s security. Layer 2 blockchain solutions come in a variety of flavors, with applications ranging from micropayments to gaming and social media. Layer 2 solutions will be critical in improving scalability and efficiency as blockchain adoption grows.



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